York University Criminological Review 2017-11-02T12:17:40-04:00 CSRI Open Journal Systems <p>The York University Criminological Review (YUCR) is a free, open access journal published once annually. We are committed to facilitating critical discussion about topics relating to crime and criminal justice, and their intersection with other disciplines in the natural and social sciences. Every published article goes through a rigorous review and editing process over the summer, and publication is scheduled for the fall of each year.</p> <p>This journal enjoys a thematic scope that encompasses a variety of disciplines, such as (but not limited to), the study of crime, law, politics, governmentality, sociology, media and communications, policy and political economy.</p> Front Cover 2017-11-02T12:17:39-04:00 Tanika McLeod 2017-11-02T12:08:19-04:00 Copyright (c) 2017 York University Criminological Review About the YUCR 2017-11-02T12:17:39-04:00 Tanika McLeod 2017-11-01T22:55:05-04:00 Copyright (c) 2017 York University Criminological Review Letter from the Editor-in-Chief 2017-11-02T12:17:39-04:00 Tanika McLeod 2017-11-01T22:56:42-04:00 Copyright (c) 2017 York University Criminological Review Editorial Board 2017-11-02T12:17:39-04:00 Tanika McLeod 2017-11-01T22:57:23-04:00 Copyright (c) 2017 York University Criminological Review A Criminology of Hope 2017-11-02T12:17:39-04:00 Laura Finley <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2017-11-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2017 Laura Finley A Note of Encouragement 2017-11-02T12:17:39-04:00 Laureen Snider <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2017-11-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2017 Laureen Snider Exploitation or Agency? 2017-11-02T12:17:39-04:00 Asia Dawn McLean <p>By advancing a critical analysis of modern Canadian laws governing sex work, this paper will discuss the landmark Supreme Court case <em>Canada v. Bedford</em> and the social and political context from which the case arose. This paper will go on to outline key amendments to the <em>Criminal Code</em> related to sex work introduced through Bill C-36 in 2014, highlighting key theoretical perspectives and issues arising from academic literature on Bill C-36. In conclusion, this paper will discuss a number of critical issues raised in response to Bill C-36 and the role of law in protecting the rights and safety of sex workers in Canada.</p> 2017-11-01T22:27:51-04:00 Copyright (c) 2017 Asia McLean The Western Response to the Refugee: 2017-11-02T12:17:39-04:00 Bryce Jenkins <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Tactics used by the Western world to control risks to (inter)national security, primarily through border control and immigration policy, are critiqued as not only being grounded in the dark side of biopolitics, but also the extension of the state of exception. The ‘gates’ of Fortress Europe and other Western nations have become increasingly difficult to permeate for those deemed the Other. The creation of a hierarchy within foreigners, created to establish those who ‘belong’ from those who do not, demonstrates the Western world’s attempt to uphold the white, predominately Christian demographic. It is argued the use of biopolitics to ‘purify’ the human race places all individuals within the state of exception, resulting in the globalization of the <em>camp</em>.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2017-11-01T22:31:09-04:00 Copyright (c) 2017 Bryce Jenkins The Last Shall Be First, Postcolonialism and Critical Security Studies 2017-11-02T12:17:39-04:00 John P. Hayes <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>In contemporary international relations (IR), dominant representations and discourses of global security follow an epistemological consensus that privileges political realism. Following a brief overview of poststructuralism and traditional IR theory, this paper draws upon seminal works central to the development of the literature of postcolonial security studies. This literature review exemplifies how conflicts of liberation and decolonization of the late twentieth century have at times been misconstrued in traditional IR scholarship as proxy conflicts of the Cold War, an assumption that is symptomatic of eurocentrism and political realism. This paper puts the central themes from select seminal works of postcolonial theory into discussion with each other to emphasize that, while theorists diverge in respect to certain normative conclusions, taken together, they contribute to a robust critique of eurocentric scholarship. This paper concludes by suggesting that triangulating poststructural and postcolonial theories with traditional IR scholarship is effective in achieving a holistic critical analysis in relation to security studies.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2017-11-01T22:28:41-04:00 Copyright (c) 2017 John P. Hayes Counter-hegemony in "Boyz n the Hood" 2017-11-02T12:17:40-04:00 Nadia Ali <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Mass mainstream media plays a fundamental role in how we perceive and come to understand society. In the case of youth crime, mainstream media often presents sensationalized depictions of youth engaging in criminal activity that is significantly detached from its occurrence in actuality. Such sensationalized media discourses often overlook the reality of youth crime in society and how the broader forms of structural violence, such as neoliberalism and tough-on-crime policies, facilitate the conditions for crime and violence to occur in the first place. This results in significant disparities in policing and crime control policies which disproportionately target impoverished and racialized youth analyzed within the context of the United States. Focusing on John Singleton’s 1991 lm Boyz n the Hood, this analysis explores how mass mainstream media, which perpetuates sensationalized discourses regarding youth crime, may also be a site where hegemonic narratives of youth crime can be deconstructed, to which Singleton utilizes the medium of film to do so.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2017-11-01T22:29:19-04:00 Copyright (c) 2017 Nadia Ali Managing the Unmanageable: 2017-11-02T12:17:40-04:00 Rebecca Peters <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This paper considers the consequences and impacts of the Punitive Turn in the context of the experience of Aboriginal offenders in the Canadian criminal justice system. Looking at the presence of a sharp increase in prison populations among Aboriginal prison populations, the politicization of criminal justice matters, and the increased use of actuarial risk/need assessment under the New Penology as indication of the existence of a “Punitive Turn” in the context of the experience of Aboriginal people in the Canadian criminal justice system. Additionally, the expansion of the prison driven by the prison industrial complex and the discovery of the profitability of the prison is regarded as a motivating factor behind the emergence and continuation of changes in punitive practices since the 1970s. Historical injustices, the prison industrial complex and changes in punitive practices have all contributed to the considerable overrepresentation of Aboriginal individuals in Canadian correctional facilities and will be considered to be a part of an overarching strategy of management and control over this marginalised group.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2017-11-01T22:29:54-04:00 Copyright (c) 2017 Rebecca Peters Biographies 2017-11-02T12:17:40-04:00 Tanika McLeod 2017-11-01T22:59:22-04:00 Copyright (c) 2017 York University Criminological Review Back Cover 2017-11-02T12:17:40-04:00 Tanika McLeod 2017-11-01T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2017 York University Criminological Review